The Beauty of Squash
Squash is undoubtedly a very beautiful game. A game that is full of action and excitement. At the same time, full of elegance and clever thinking. It provides a player the opportunity to express qualities of speed and power, as well as extreme sensitivity and control. This is a true game of body and mind. The head is essential in keeping calm, controlling the shots and movement, making quick accurate decisions, understanding the opponent, and making optimal use of a player’s resources. However, without the physique, the ability to move fast and accurately, stretch down for the ball, and last for as long as it takes, winning against a tough opponent would be impossible. A player without the necessary physical conditioning, would not have the opportunity to move onto the ball and play the shot as he would like to. In other words, the mind must control the body, but the body must be capable of executing orders.
It is incredible how squash is so much like a game of chess. Controlling the centre, laying out the foundations for attaining good defence when required, planning ahead for the attack, and using the various weapons to keep the adversary tied down. Watching capable players illustrates how they are determined to stay on the T and try to manoeuvre each other until one player may dominate and go for the kill. The amazing thing about squash though, is that it is all that and more. Not only do players have so many shots at their disposal, but also there are also many dimensions to the game. Players can vary the speed of their shots, use the sidewalls to create angles, as well as send the ball high up, or down just above the tin. These added dimensions enhance creative tactical play. Tactics are also influenced by the players’ court coverage abilities.
Squash is also a very tough game, both physically and mentally. Rallies are often long and hard. At the same time a player must be capable of making sound decisions and maintain his patience. Experience is extremely important in attaining the right balance. It is also this element of toughness, which makes the game so attractive to play. No wonder, so many people prefer participating rather than watching. Most players are also very competitive, and although they may play primarily to enjoying themselves, they always prefer to play at their best and win.
My passion for this game has driven me to play and train hard for the past 31 years, and try to help others improve their game. Apart from the satisfaction attained from coaching beginners and working with some of the world’s top players, I had devised the Shot Squash 2000 training system. Having done that, my aim was to give further advise to interested players. This e-book is an attempt to explain and illustrate every possible detail to players and coaches. It also tries to offer solutions for errors of every type. Although this book has much detailed information, which a recreational player may find inapplicable, it hopefully provides enjoyable reading and viewing. Besides, a recreational player may decide to follow whichever particular advise he wishes to. He may not be very interested in making great sacrifices to become the fittest squash player, but may like to work hard at improving his racket skills, deception or tactics. Another player may be very interested in the weight training, and would prefer having a more powerful game.
So, whichever type of player you are, beginner or professional, you will find some interesting information, which will improve your game. Coaches will also find the material of interest and help them find different means to solving their pupils’ problems. For now, sit back and enjoy!
THE RACKET - OLD AND NEW
The racket is obviously a very important piece of equipment. All the effort made by a player during the execution of a shot are concentrated on, and serve the purpose, of moving the racket with a certain degree of control at a particular speed. Therefore, the racket has to be manageable and “comfortable”. It is also the racket (not forgetting the strings!), which makes contact with the ball on impact to give it speed and direction, which are both very important in allowing the player to send the ball where he/she wants to.
The racket being manageable and “ comfortable ” to use means that it must not be too heavy as to impede quick effortless movement, especially during the back swing or when using the wrist in particular situations. This will be explained later in the book when other arguments such as technique, deception, and defence are discussed. It must also be well balanced and not be excessively “top” or “bottom heavy” in order to give the player enough “feel” in determining and sensing the racket’s position at all times.
A good racket will make the strings work well by keeping them accurately in place while allowing them to absorb the ball’s impact and rebound with precision. Another very important factor is to absorb the vibrations (if produced on impact) without rendering the ball “insignificant”. This means that the player still feels the impact of the ball in order to apply sensitivity to his shots.
In other words, a racket must not be so powerful, elastic, and totally shock absorbing (spongy) as to transmit to the player the same sensation on impact regardless of the speed of the oncoming ball or that of the racket swing.
The ideal area of impact or sweet spot on the racket string surface must not be too small or too large. The disadvantages due to the former are quit obvious while that of the latter rather less so. If the sweet spot is too big, this will imply that there exists a “false” sweet spot. I refer to it as false, because less sensitive players would not distinguish where impact took place. A sweet spot which is too big may give the player a false impression that he did hit the ball well even when in reality, impact was well off-centre. Impact may be regularly off-centre due to bad technique that is constantly ignored, hence, creating further problems or lack of progress.
With this in mind, we should remember that not long ago, wooden rackets with a reduced head size were the norm. These rackets were extremely difficult to use when compared to modern oversize carbon/graphite/ or kevlar rackets. Nonetheless, there have been great, admirable players who used the wooden frames with astonishing skills. I would advise players who haven’t seen these objects in circulation to try to get their hands on old videos to see the skills and precision of players like Qamar Zaman or the power of Hidy Jahan’s shots.
HOW THE GAME HAS CHANGED
The rackets we use today have made life very different for players. Control, and especially power, has been greatly enhanced. Even a player on the receiving end of powerful accurate shots of an opponent -thanks to the modern racket- finds assistance in his efforts to defend. For example, the defender despite being fully stretched, finds enough “push” from the racket to send the ball to the back of the court, and get himself out of trouble.
Theoretically, a lighter racket favours deceptive play too. It has become easier to hold a shot till the last moment, and also easier to use the wrist. This will be referred to later.
It would be safe to say that hitting the ball while not under pressure has become easier, and that players find themselves doing things differently, causing the game to change together with the racket’s evolution. Generally speaking, the pace of play and frequency of shots have increased, making the game even faster than it used to be.
At professional level, the tin has also been lowered by 5cms. This has favoured more shot making and attacking play. Players have been provided an added incentive to play short and fine-tune such attacking shots. At the same time, they have had to prepare themselves, fitness wise, even better in order to move faster and retrieve their opponents more difficult shots. Generally speaking, the rallies have become slightly shorter but more intense.
Even though the tin height has been lowered only for P.S.A players, others who play on a regular tin have been influenced by the changes. Watching the top pro's attacking more has convinced others to try adopting a similar stile of play. An increased pace of play with more volley drops, and volley boasts has become more common.
MAKING THE RIGHT CHOICE
Which is the best racket for me? Probably a very frequent question in the minds of players of all levels. Some less serious players consider aesthetics as a priority while professionals may evaluate the merits of a sponsor’s contract. The vast majority of squash players, though, look for different qualities.
Having discussed the importance of this most valuable instrument, our choice must consider all that has been mentioned above. A good racket must provide control and power, be light enough for manageability, but not too light to the extent of not giving enough feedback to the player’s hand, regarding the racket head’s speed and position. If a racket is too light and lacks material, it may not be solid enough to absorb the impact, hence, making the ball seem heavier and difficult to manage.
In other words, players must be wise to consider all aspects. Players differ in structure, strength, and sensitivity. What may feel right for one may not be so for another. So, there is no “best racket in the world”. A sensible choice must be made to select the racket most adept to help the player accomplish his goal. Brand names are important, though to some extent. A company, which constantly invests in research to find the best materials, frame structures, and innovative ideas, should not be overlooked. A racket producer which works harder than the others to maintain a leading edge, is more likely to guarantee it's players, top quality rackets.
One common factor must exist however, and that is strength or resistance against breakage. I would avoid all rackets that break easily or brands that have a “fragile” reputation. Squash is fast and there are too many walls to spend money on things that break easily.
Returning to the point about how players are physically different, and vary in playing style, rackets also, come in different materials, weights, shapes and sizes. The variations found between rackets offer players with different needs, the appropriate solution. The frame shape is one of the most important characteristics of a squash racket, and shall be considered first. Racket head shapes could be grouped into four categories.
- Oversize wide and narrow
- Drop shape (or long string)
- Drop shape with a flat top
The oversize racket makes life very easy for beginners, especially if it is also light, but may create a false sense of security. With this racket, beginners would miss hit the ball less frequently and produce more powerful shots. This type of racket would also be suitable for better players who move the wrist excessively during the back swing and the beginning stages of the swing itself.
The only real disadvantage being the excessive sweet spot area, which makes it difficult for players to individuate the exact correct spot where contact should be made with the ball for maximum precision.
I would also advise very tall, big players not to use this type of racket. It is also important to note that as this type of racket has a large frame, only recently has it been possible to produce a lightweight version, thanks to the use of modern materials such as titanium.
The oversize narrow racket (top) is very similar to the oversize racket (bottom), but obviously has a narrower sweet spot. Hence, this racket is not as friendly to beginners, but will force them to concentrate more on the accuracy of their swing in order to make good contact with the ball.
The more rigid frame is suitable for advanced players. This racket provides accuracy plus the benefits of the long string for powerful shots.
The drop shaped racket head is a good compromise. The head is big enough to produce powerful shots, but also of acceptable size to provide control. It is important for the player using this type of racket, to note that the sweet spot is a little off-centre towards the top end.
The drop shaped head with a flat top, is normally a head-heavy racket. That is, most of its weight is tipped towards the top end. As this racket has a flat top, it is also very wide at the top of the head and becomes very narrow moving towards the racket throat. This means that the sweet spot is even further towards the tip of the racket. I would highly recommend this racket for a very tall, heavily built player. Very tall players find it hard to go down on their legs. Heavily built ones, even more. Reaching down with their arm to hit a low-lying ball is made easier with this type of racket, which has its sweet spot very close to the tip.
It is also true that when hitting a ball that is close to the sidewall, a point of impact close to the top of the frame is ideal with this racket shape.
The sweet spot close to the top end of the racket provides another advantage for a long armed player. The distance between the player’s hand and the point of impact is greater compared to other rackets and consequently more proportional to that between the player’s hand and his elbow. Therefore, the player has greater leverage, which could be used to accelerate the racket head and hit the ball very hard when required. This greater leverage together with the heavier racket head would probably be uncomfortable for an average sized player and render the racket uncontrollable. Of course, a few more grams added to the tip will not disturb a heavily built player.
(I would add here that any player, regardless of build, who is not interested enough to get his technique corrected and continues to have a slow swing, would be able to hit the ball harder with this top heavy racket).
The mid-size racket, generally of an oval or squarish shape, is the ideal racket for top players or those who would like to play with good technique and are constantly searching for accuracy. These rackets, offer precise feedback to the sensitive player. The exact quality and point of impact can be felt. Hence, a player will adjust his timing, technique and precision. He/she will be able to get the most out of the racket and enhance his/her abilities and performance. This racket may not be the easiest to use, but with some patience and practise, would provide extreme accuracy and power.
THE RACKET THROAT AND SHAFT
So far, we have talked about the racket head, but there are other important areas of the racket frame. The racket throat, for example, may vary significantly. Some rackets are very thick in this area, while others are thin. The same applies for the shaft.
A thick racket throat should make the racket head distort less and pass less vibration to the player’s hand when the ball isn’t hit well. This would give the player more control. It is important that a massive frame should have an aerodynamic profile and be constructed of lightweight material; otherwise the racket would be unmanageable.
The racket shaft could be constructed on similar lines, to enhance speed, power, and control.
If a player chooses a racket with a very thin shaft, he must make sure that it is not too flexible, as this will undoubtedly give excellent ball speed, but not directional accuracy.
In conclusion, it is very important to read the racket tests published in squash magazines and listen to your coach’s advise. Remember also to read the manufacturer’s notes on technical characteristics, construction, and use of material, in their brochures and on the pamphlet attached to the rackets.
MATERIALS USED FOR RACKET FRAM CONSTRUCTION AND HOW THEY VARY
Rackets are made of materials such as graphite, carbon fibre, kevlar, or titanium. Some cheap rackets are also made of aluminium. The aluminium rackets had the advantage of being very economical for those who wanted to try the game and spend the minimal amount of money. These rackets are however, relatively heavy and deform easily. Today, some carbon fibre rackets cost very little and provide the same price advantage. These rackets are undoubtedly of better quality, lighter and last longer.
Graphite rackets are more robust, and had been introduced after the carbon fibre ones. In fact, both materials are used together, but nowadays less so. Graphite rackets are generally more rigid. Kevlar is an even tougher material. Strong materials, which are also shock, absorbing, permit racket constructors to make very light rackets, which could take all the punishment on a squash court. The latest material now used is titanium, which is even lighter. The most recent titanium models are a joy to play with. Very powerful accurate shots are made much easier, while delicate shots are even more controllable.
The use of tough, resistant materials is vital. Shots that are very close to the sidewall and deep in the corners must be hit with confidence. A fragile racket would probably compromise the player’s concentration if he has to worry too much about not harming his racket.
A WORD ON STRINGS
Without getting into much detail, some understanding of a few general concepts is important. A player must be able to distinguish between degrees of string tension, such as tight, very tight, loose, and very loose. It is also important to know that looser strings push the ball faster while tighter strings generally provide more control. Each player has to experiment with attention and sensitivity to establish what works best for him or her.
Strings also come in different shapes and sizes. Apart from the natural gut strings, which are hardly used, any more, there is a huge variety of synthetics from the most complex and thin, to the most simple and thick calibres. Thick strings generally last longer while the opposite goes for thin ones. Thinner strings usually give more control, too.
The surface of the material used is what makes contact with the ball. Most players avoid strings which are too smooth. They provide less grip on the ball and consequently less control, especially when using a slice action. These factors are to be considered and tried in order to make a good choice.
String flexibility is important to identify. Strings that are too rigid don’t provide much power and are not easy to adapt to. However, flexible strings provide a nice big sweet spot and lots of power. A note of attention though. It is important to adopt a slightly higher string tension when using the flexible types, as they will stretch. If they are ideally set at the beginning, they will become too loose after some hours of play.
At first, most beginners will not even consider how better players hold their racket. Their hand goes onto the grip in what seems and feels most comfortable and natural. They will often fail to consider their future playing needs, which arise as they improve. So, if you are a beginner, use the advice and information in this section, even if it is hard work to start with, and makes life difficult on court. I say this because the technique adopted in squash is quit particular and is incompatible with a wrong grip. Hitting your first shots with a technically correct grip may not feel good at first, but the rewards soon pay off.
HOW SHOULD I HOLD MY RACKET?
As illustrated, hold your racket with the other hand, almost horizontally in front of you. Now turn it very slightly as to have the racket face tilted (photo below left). Bring in the hand as if to shake hands with a person and then wrap your fingers around the grip with the index finger slightly spread in front (photo below right). Don’t tighten the fist and keep your hand loose and sensitive.
The racket face should be tilted very slightly upwards in the direction shown here.
The V shape produced by the index finger and thumb, rests on the top left border of the racket handle.
There is also what I call the X / O points of contact, to teach my students the correct grip. Point X on the player’s hand must rest on top of point O indicated in the photo above. An important consideration in order to guaranty the right position.
The correct position of the wrist should allow the racket head to remain slightly higher than the hand.
The wrist position in this photo is incorrect, but, from this angle, a rear view of a correct hand position can be seen.
The index finger has a vital role in keeping the racket head under control without using much force. Try this little experiment to explain the idea better. While holding the racket correctly, use the other hand to force the racket head up and down. Now change to adopt a hammer like grip, and try again. You will notice that with the wrong grip, there is a lot of play between hand and racket, while with the correct grip, the racket’s movement is very much contained and the tip of the racket is under control. This is of vital importance in order to time racket movement during the execution of shots, and developing excellent ball control.
It is generally considered incorrect to change grip from forehand to backhand as in tennis, but in squash the grip must not be totally rigid and fixed. The racket grip is held more by the fingers rather than deeply placed in the palm. This method permits the player to slightly change the angle of the racket face in order to slice the ball well on both forehand and backhand. This is of special importance in situations where the ball goes slightly past the player.
Without adopting this versatile grip, these situations would put added pressure on a player and force a loose shot or an error.
You may notice that some players hold the racket higher up (short grip), or very low at the bottom (long grip). The short grip provides a little more control while the long grip gives some added power. My advice is to analyse where you are lacking most and adopt the necessary position without exaggerating. For an even better solution - time permitting - work on technique and power to correct the weakness and adopt a standard grip or intermediate position.
GRIP COMFORT AND THICKNESS
One would take it for granted that the racket handle and special material used on it, provides a lot of grip. Unfortunately that is not always the case. How often has sweat hindered our efforts to play at our best? Too often, right?
Just to emphasise the point, I personally have found my footwork and co-ordination ruined by a slippery grip. Sounds absurd, but when you consider that a large part of our speed and agility derives from believing to have everything under control, including the racket (an extremely important object to have ready well before striking the ball), then this argument begins to sound more logical. If you are still not convinced, try putting some really slippery stuff on an old grip and try hard to win a serious match. You will find that the anxiety and discomfort of not hitting the ball well will probably make you tense and angry (unless you are Bjorn Borg). This in turn will make you slow. The lack of control during racket preparation will make you take-off late and incorrectly, and will consequently disturb your co-ordinated movements, all of which would lead to more frustration and greater effort to move.
Grip comfort is also important to consider. When holding a racket, feedback is transmitted to the player through specific points of contact between the hand and grip. A comfortable, consistent grip (not varying in quality or thickness), allows a sensitive player greater control. These pressure points of contact on the player’s hand permit him/her to feel the exact position and speed of the racket, as well as the quality of impact with the ball. A grip, which is uncomfortable or of irregular quality or thickness would hinder a player. He/she could find it very hard to find the desired control and power. A player should therefore, never neglect this important end of the racket if he/she wants to consistently play at his/her best.
Watching champions or great sportsmen at what they do best, is always a great pleasure for most of us, even if we are not greatly interested in their sport. This may be due to their ability to win or break records, but a great deal of the attraction is in seeing near perfection. It is interesting and marvellous to see how they make what is almost impossible, look so easy and seemingly effortless. We can only appreciate their speed and skills when we try it out ourselves.
It is true that years of hard work and practice lead to such performances, but not all reach the top. Unfortunately not all of us posses the mental and physical talents that make the difference. Plus, it is not always possible to find the best of trainers or coaches who have the knowledge and ability to make an athlete produce quality work instead of just hard work.
Therefore, the art of performing almost perfectly is what distinguishes between sportsmen. Apart from the state of mind, which will be discussed later, the most important factor related to the above-mentioned quality work is technique. To me, technique in sport is the art of movement, and as the laws of physics govern movement, the technique adopted in sport must give logical and measurable benefits, rather than just an aesthetically pleasing appearance.
The first time each one of us saw a good squash player on court, one of the most impressive aspects was how hard he or she could hit the ball without making much effort. How was that possible? And how come beginners always complain about not being able to hit the ball hard enough?
The answer doesn’t come down to strength- even though that could help- but rather to the ability to accelerate the tip of the racket head, and make “clean” contact between the racket strings and the ball. Yes, the tip, because according to the laws of physics that is the fastest moving part of the racket. In the section that follows, a detailed description of both the forehand and backhand swing and follow-through will be presented. For simplicity, we will assume that the player is hitting a medium pace shot down the wall.
The forehand is the more awkward side for a squash player despite the fact that most beginners complain more about their backhand. Most beginners feel comfortable with the forehand because the ball is easier to see on that side, and they are usually able to hit the ball quite hard. The relatively powerful muscles utilised (shoulders, pectorals, upper arm, and forearm) are responsible. However, when it comes to executing delicate shots such as a slow boast or drops hot, or looking for maximum accuracy, these same players start having problems. This is because the instinctive style adopted for the forehand, is not compatible with the various racket speeds utilised for fast and slow shots.
When talking of shot power or ball speed, it is most important that the effort put into the swing is proportional to the speed of the resulting shot. Less talented players or beginners will always make a huge effort to hit the ball hard. This results in dangerous excessive swings, lack of accuracy, wasted precious energy, and lack of ability in difficult situations, i.e. when the opponent’s shot is difficult.
In the following section, a detailed explanation of the technique used, and a breakdown of the shot will further explain and clarify what has been discussed above. The understanding of proper technique, will also take us to other phases in developing our game.
POSITION AND SWING
Let us start from the feet upwards. This would be logical because any player must first establish a sense of balance before attempting the swing. Without good balance, the swing will lack power and control.
The photo (right) illustrates a player facing the sidewall with the left foot forward and back-swing completed. We will momentarily start from this position for simplicity and later view the more complete and realistic position adopted when starting off from the T, as during play. Note that the heel of the right foot is off the ground and the left foot is not excessively far. That is, the step taken by the left foot is quite short to render the position comfortable and effortless. It is also important to note that the feet are not perfectly in line, but rather on parallel lines in order to ensure balance and freedom of rotation at the waist. The heel of the right foot is raised for the same reason. It is of vital importance to bend both knees and not just that of the leading leg. This allows the player to maintain the trunk upright and the head steady while allowing maximal effortless rotation.
The player is now perfectly ready for the swing. Before going on to the next image, observe the position of the player’s head and shoulders. The right shoulder is higher than the left at this stage. Also note the position of the racket head, the inclination of the racket, and the position of the player’s elbow. It is this position of the elbow and its successive movement, which is difficult and unnatural to most beginners, but is of extreme importance to enable the player to hit the ball hard, and for example, get the ball out of the back corners.
The position of the left arm is also important. The left arm must facilitate the rotation of the trunk and must not get in the way of the follow-through. The left arm must also help counter balance the rest of the body.
Moving onto the next photo, it is clear that the elbow, while still bent, starts to move forward while the right shoulder goes lower as the trunk rotates. The players head must remain perfectly still while this happens. As the elbow moves forward, the player’s hand and racket handle get dragged along while the racket head lags behind.
The next photo (near right) consequently shows how the arm begins to straighten out and the wrist brings in the racket head to start catching up with the position of the racket handle. The photo (far right) illustrates what the player is trying to achieve, and reminds us that eventually the racket must be brought in line with the arm.
We now come to this photo. The phase just before impact. Here, the shoulders have come further round, the arm is stretched with the elbow no longer bent, and the wrist has finished its job, allowing the racket head to catch up perfectly with the player’s hand and arm. Now the racket is perfectly in line with the arm. Note that the movement has been executed around the waist and not at shoulder height. Also the head remained perfectly still throughout and the racket face always maintained open. The heel of the right foot has also moved slightly outwards to assist the rotation of the shoulders.
Impact, as demonstrate in the photo (right), position wise is very similar to the previous photo. A most important considerations is that at impact, the ball must be just beyond* the left foot and knee, while in line with the arm and racket. The racket must be perpendicular to the sidewall in order to send the ball parallel to the latter. During all phases of the swing, the racket grip (handle) must remain lower than the racket head.
*The photo below illustrates the position of the ball on impact. Note how the ball remains on an imaginary parallel line lying between those formed by the feet.
The shot definitely does not finish on impact. An accurate follow through is the way to perfection. During this phase, (photo above right) the rotation of the shoulders is very important to allow the right arm to continue its acceleration for the longest possible duration before gradually decelerate. It is important to guide the racket in the direction of the shot executed while the racket head circles around the body. While discussing shots such as the drop shot, the importance of the follow-through will become more evident, to enhance accuracy.
The photos are arranged together below to demonstrate the key stages of the swing.
This last image illustrates the firmness of the head and how balance is maintained till the very end. To see an action video clip of the swing explained above, click here.
THE BACK-SWING bkswng frhnd
At this moment, it is easier to describe and understand the back-swing. The photo series above shows a simplified back-swing (for simplicity, while the player is already facing the side wall). The back-swing must be the exact inverse of the swing discussed above. The same relationship has to be maintained between the racket head, grip (racket handle), elbow, and shoulders. In fact, if you look at the photos from left to right, you will see the back-swing while if you look from right to left, it seems the player is swinging at the ball.
During the swing, the racket head lagged behind and was last to catch up. During the back-swing, the tip of the racket must be first to move, by using the wrist, then the elbow and then the shoulders begin to move. For accuracy purposes, the tip of the racket must trace the same line during the swing and the back-swing. A good suggestion would be to hold the racket still for a second or two at the peak of the back-swing and try to feel the exact position of the racket and all parts of the body before going ahead and hitting the ball. The following video clip clearly demonstrates the movement.
So far, the technique for the forehand has been demonstrated and explained, starting from a static position and presuming that the player is already turned towards the sidewall. In the section to follow shortly, where the straight drive is explained, the player starts off from a more practical position. Hence, the following clip shows the execution of the back-swing from a frontal position. play video Again, note how the wrist is used and the feet move only after the racket has been taken back.
CORRECT USE OF THE WRIST cuowfh
Wrist action is most important in squash. This is evident from what has been explained above, in the section on technique. Wrist movement is a reoccurring theme in this book, and a lot will be said further on. Here, it is important to recognise that the wrist movement is a controlled action, which is incorporated in the swing, to develop the necessary racket acceleration. For a player to understand how to use the wrist, it is important to first consider these two video clips and try out the action, preferably with a racket at hand. The first clip illustrates a subtle short-range movement, which requires a lot of sensitivity. This movement constitutes the first part of the wrist action. play video
However, the main wrist movement can be seen here. play video As can be seen from the video, in reality, the movement stems from the elbow, but the wrist is the centre of control. To achieve the correct wrist movement, the player must combine the two parts illustrated, to produce an action, which looks like this. play video
- В начале матча подающий игрок определяется жребием путем вращения ракетки. Если подающий игрок выиграл розыгрыш, он продолжает подавать, но должен сменить квадрат подачи.
- В начале гейма и при смене подающего игрока квадрат подачи может быть любым.
- При подаче мяч должен попасть выше линии подачи и ниже линии аута на передней стене.
- Если при приеме мяч не отбит с лета, он должен не более одного раза коснуться пола за передней линией корта и при этом попасть в четверть, которая противоположна квадрату подачи.
- Отбитый мяч должен должен попасть в переднюю стену корта, не касаясь пола. Касание боковых или задней стен допускается.
- Если мяч касается или попадает в соперника, игра останавливается:
- если бьющий игрок до совершения удара не сделал «разворот», а мяч попал бы в переднюю стену без касания других стен, то игрок выигрывает розыгрыш;
- если до попадания в другого игрока мяч коснулся или мог коснуться любой другой стены, кроме передней, розыгрыш переигрывается;
- если до попадания в другого игрока мяч все равно был неправильно принят, бьющий игрок проигрывает розыгрыш.
- Одной из ступней, хотя бы ее частью, игрок должен касаться пола внутри зоны подачи.
- Этой ступней нельзя касаться красной линии, ограничивающей квадрат подачи.
Игрок проигрывает розыгрыш при совершении ошибки при приеме мяча. К таким ошибкам относятся:
— двойной отскок мяча от пола;
— двойной удар ракеткой по мячу;
— пронос мяча на ракетке;
— попадание мячом в пол до его касания передней стены;
— попадание мячом в зону ниже линии звуковой панели или выше линии аута, а также касание границ этих зон.
- Розыгрыш переигрывается, когда удар по мячу опасен для здоровья противников или когда игроки находятся на пути друг друга. Переигровка происходит, если один игрок мог принять мяч, а другой сделал все возможное, чтобы не стать помехой. Это называется «лет» (Let).
- Лет также назначается, например, при попадании мяча в соперника, если до этого мяч коснулся или мог коснуться любой другой стены, кроме передней.
- После удара по мячу игрок должен позволить противнику видеть мяч, обеспечить свободный доступ к мячу и пространство для удара по мячу.
- Если игрок не попытался избежать стать помехой или был слишком близко, не позволяя сопернику осуществить удар, то бьющему игроку присуждается победное очко. Это называется «строк» (Stroke).
- Если перед ударом мяч с любой из сторон огибает сзади вокруг бьющего игрока, игрок совершает разворот.
- Безопаснее приостановить игру и попросить лет до совершения удара.
- Если же после совершения бьющим игроком разворота мяч попадает в противника, то противник выигрывает розыгрыш.
Нет, однако, после каждого гейма у игроков есть 90 секунд для отдыха.
Бьющий игрок проигрывает розыгрыш.
- Если мяч лопается во время розыгрыша, то назначается лет.
- Если мяч необычно отскакивает от стены, то лет не назначается.